Sense of Time in Everyday Contexts
Stephen Houghton1, Kevin Durkin2, Rebecca P. Ang3, Myra F. Taylor1, and Mark Brandtman4
1The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, 2University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 3Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 4Brandtman Educational Consulting, Sydney, Australia
Abstract. A new parent report measure entitled the Salience, Organization and Management of Time Scale (SOMTS) that assessed the temporal regulation of children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in everyday contexts was developed over three phases (item generation, preliminary validation, and factorial structure). Items were compiled from related earlier instruments plus parental interviews, with final selection determined on the basis of item affectivity indices.
The final study was, in part, an online study. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analyses from a sample of parents of children with (n = 194) and without (n = 142) AD/HD indicated a three factor structure of the new instrument (Verbalizing temporal structures, Temporal self-regulation, and Conceptualizing and sequencing time). Significant between-group differences revealed children with AD/HD performed worse on all three factors compared to children without AD/HD.
The factors exhibited moderate discriminant validity when used individually and excellent discriminant validity when used in combination. The three distinct and reliable factors identified by the new instrument map well onto themes emphasized in a comprehensive theory of AD/HD and the between-group differences are consistent with the theory’s characterization of a developmental delay in sense of time in young people with the disorder.